|Sanura Injil, Martir|
Kirene (iada negara Libya) molo'ö tradisi Koptik
|Mate||a.t. 68 (56 fakhe)|
Aleksandria, Mesir (barö wamatörö Roma me luo da'ö)
|Tefolakhömi ba||Fefu gereja ndra niha Keriso samolakhömi niha ni'amoni'ö|
|Nahia lafosumange ia||Basilika Santo Marco (Venesia, Italia)|
Katedral Santo Markus (Aleksandria, Mesir)
|Nilumö'önia||Pengacara, Venesia, Mesir, Koptik, Mainar, Podgorica|
|Sinurania||Turia Somuso Dödö Nisura Mareko (niböbögö khö Mareko)|
Mareko (li Latin Marcus; li Yunani Μᾶρκος; li Aramaia ܡܪܩܘܣ; li Geʽez ማርቆስ; li Ibrani מארק) ma Mareko Yohane ma asese göi latötöi ia Santo Mareko, no samösa niha niŵaö tradisi sanura Zura Mareko. Ha sambalö fao dödö ndra ere Zura Ni'amoni'ö modern wa sanura Zura Mareko no samösa niha bö'ö si lö ta'ila töi ba tenga Mareko samösa. Molo'ö tradisi Gereja, ifasindro Gereja Keuskupan Aleksandria Mareko, si tobali sambua moroi ba zi lima dadaoma ndra niha Keriso nifotöi patriarkat bakha ba agama Niha Keriso. Te'owasaini wanörö-tödö khönia ero 25 April ba simbol khönia harimo so'afi.
Haniha ia (identitas)[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]
Molo'ö William Lane (1974), so "tradisi si lö mamalö" sanguma'ö wa Mareko Yohane no Mareko Sanura Injil samösa, ba ba wa Mareko Yohane no talifusö tiri khö Baranaba. Ba hiza bakha ba zura On the Seventy Apostles ifabö'öni Hipolitus moroi ba Roma zi datölu niha andrö: Mareko Sanura Injil (TimII 4:11), Mareko Yohane (HalZin 12:12,25; 13:5,13; 15:37) ba Mareko talifusö tiri khö Baranaba (Kol 4:10; Fil 1:24). Molo'ö Hipolitus, fefu ira si datölu andre te'erai ba gotalua ndra "nifahaö si fitu ngafulu" nifatenge Yesu ba wamazaewe turia somuso dödö (Luk 10:1) ba danö Yudaia.
Molo'ö Eusebius moroi ba Kaisarea (Historia Ecclesiastica 2.9.1–4), ba döfi si sara wamatörönia Yudaia (döfi 41), ibunu Yakobo ono Zebedaio Herode Agripa I ba ifara'u'ö Wetero, sedöna mubunu aefa Paska. Bahiza i'efa'ö Wetero mala'ika ba zahöli-höli dödö ba te'efa'ö moroi ba wogamö Herode (HalZin 12:1-19). Isaŵa Antiokhia Fetero ba ba döfi si dua wamatörö Klaudius (döfi 42; Hist. Eccl. 2.14.6) mofanö ia möi ba Roma itörö Anatolia (ba negara Turki iada'a) (itörö khö ndra niha samati ba Pontus, Galatia, Kapadokia, Asia ba Bithinia, simane nisura ba FetI 1:1). Ba lala wofanönia andrö falukha ia khö Mareko ba ihalö Mareko tobali awönia ba lala awö tobali sangali li khönia. Isusura ngawalö huhuo sebua khö Wetero götö wefaora andrö Mareko ba si no isura andre tobali dania böröta Zura Mareko (Hist. Eccl. 15-16). Aefa da'ö iröi Wetero Mareko, ilau ia ba Aleksandria ba döfi si tölu wamatörö Klaudius (döfi 43).
Molo'ö HalZin 15:39, aefa sinode ba Yerusalema möi Mareko ba Siprus fao awönia Baranaba.
Molo'ö tradisi, me döfi 49, eluahania 19 fakhe aefa wanahae Yesu ba zorugo, möi mukoli Mareko ba Aleksandria ba ba da'ö ifasindro Gereja. Gereja Ortodoks Koptik ba Gereja Ortodoks Aleksandria awö Gereja Katolik Koptik, oi latötöi wurugöra khö ndra niha Keriso si föföna ba Aleksandria andre. So ösa ngawalö bakha ba liturgi Koptik si'otarai moroi khö Mareko samösa. Tobali Mareko uskup si föföna Aleksandria ba lafolakhömi göi ia tobali samasindro fa'anihakeriso ba Afrika.
Molo'ö Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. 2.24.1), te i'ali Mareko Paus Anianus moroi ba Aleksandria ba döfi si ŵalu wamatörö Nero (döfi 62/63), lö i ta'ila sibai, börö wa'amatenia. Furi hö iwa'ö tradisi Koptik wa labunu ia börö wamatinia (to'ölö laŵaö da'ö bakha ba tradisi Gereja martir) me döfi 68.
Ha sambalö sambua zöndra arakhagö fefu gere Zura Ni'amoni'ö modern wa sanura Zura Mareko no samösa niha si lö ta'ila töi ba tenga Mareko samösa. Duma-dumania ambö i'ila geografi Palestina sanura Zura Mareko (te börö me lö irai möi ia ba da'ö), "sindruhu tenga sohalöŵö ba danö ma zui sondra'u i'a ba nasi ia", ambö i'ila hada zi to'ölö ba niha Yahudi (moroi ba Palestina), ba te samösa "niha Yahudi Yunani si toröi baero danö Palestina" ia. Itema i Mitchell Reddish wa töi zanura Sura Mareko Mareko, bahiza lö ta'ila Mareko haniha. Simanö göi, "iŵaö Francis Moloney wa sanura ya'ia samösa niha sotöi Mareko, ba hiza te tenga Mareko nitötöi bakha ba Gamabu'ulali Sibohou". Iŵaö göi zimanö The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus: latötöi ia Mareko, ba hiza lö la'ila ira ere Zura Ni'amoni'ö haniha Mareko andrö.
Arakhagö fefu gere Zura Ni'amoni'ö ha sara zöndra wa fefu injil si öfa buku tenga nisura niha si no mangila hörö Yesu samösa. So sa ösa zangosili konservatif samorege wa sanura injil si öfa andrö simane niŵa'ö tradisi, ba hiza no laröi zöndra andre ya'ira arakhagö fefu gere zura ma ndregenia na laŵa'ö ia ba lö laforege sibai.
Niŵaö Zura Ni'amoni'ö ba tradisi[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]
Wa laŵa'ö isura Zura Mareko Mareko samösa, tebörögö ia moroi khö Papias moroi ba Hierapolis (a.t. döfi 60–130). Ba hiza laŵa'ö ira ere zura moroi ba Trinity Evangelical Divinity School wa niŵa'ö Papias andrö "arakhagö lö mangiwa dödö" no Mareko Yohane. Molo'ö ira ere zura modern, aökö wamotokhi ba dödö informasi moroi khö Papias.
Ha sambalö li Gereja Ortodoks Koptik ba Aleksandria wa sanura Sura Mareko no Mareko Yohane andrö, awö wa ya'ia no samösa ba gotalua ndra nifahaö si 70 nifatenge Keriso (Luk 10:1), simane nifaduhu'ö Hipolitus moroi ba Roma. Laforege göi tradisi Koptik wanguma'ö wa ifonaha ndra nifahaö ba nomonia sanura Sura Mareko aefa wa'amate Yesu, ba wa itörö nomo Mareko Yesu Keriso si no maoso (Yoh 20), ba wa möi tou Geheha Ni'amoni'ö yaŵara ba nomonia andrö göi. Inönö na, laŵa'ö wa Mareko no samösa ba gotalua genoni sama'ema idanö si no tobali agu ba walöŵa ba Kana (Yoh 2:1–11).
Molo'ö tradisi Koptik, tumbu Mareko ba Kirene, sambua kota ba Afrika Utara (iada'a Libya). Inönö tradisi andre wa ba da'a mangawuli dania Mareko aefa ifatenge ia Faulo ba Golose (Kol 4:10; Filem 24. So ösa zanguma'ö wa sindruhunia tenga Mareko da'a ba hiza Mareko talifusö tiri Baranaba) ba tobali enoninia ba Roma (TimII 4:11); Moroi ba Kirene andre awu'a ia dania möi ba Aleksandria. Me mangawuli Mareko ba Aleksandria, la'afökhösi tödö halöŵönia ira niha si lö mamati, börö me ifanudu dödö niha ba wamolakhömi lowalangi ndra niha Yunani. Me ndröfi 68, latawi zinali ba mbaginia, ladönia ia sagötö lala irege mate ia.
Famolakhömi[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]
La'owasaini gowasa Santo Mareko ira Gereja Katolik ba Gereja Ortodoks Timur ero 25 April. Gereja bö'ö sangoguna'ö kalender Julian, la'owasaini ia ero 8 Mei kalender Gregorian irugi döfi 2099. I'owasaini gowasa Santo Mareko Gereja Ortodoks Koptik ero 30 Parmouti, si faudu ba zi 25 April ba kalender Julian ma 8 Mei ba kalender Gregorian.
Tefabö'öni Mareko Yohane moroi ba Mareko sanura Injil ba mbaŵa gowasa wanörö-tödö ya'ira, Mareko Yohane te'owasaini 27 September (faudu ma Martirologi Romawi) ba Mareko sanura injil 25 April.
Mareko bakha ba "seni"[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]
Fondrege asese lagambaraini Mareko Sanura Injil faoma gambara, heza isura-sura ma zui igogohe khönia Injil. Bakha ba tradisi niha Keriso, la'oguna'ö gambara zingo tobali simbol Mareko Sanura Injil.
Singo andre no singo ba danö-simate nitutunö Mareko bakha ba injil Mareko; tola göi lagambaraini ia tobali uskup nifasui ha'uga singo; ma zui gambara niha sanolo ya'ira soloyo ba Venesia, Italia. Asese göi oroma ia i'ohe mbuku si so nisura pax tibi Marce ma zui igogohe mbulu nohi ba sambua buku. Ba gambara tanö bö'ö la'oroma'ö Mareko samösa niha sololohe buku ma gölu-gölu zura ba ba zingania so zingo so'afi. Singo andre tola eluahania femaoso Yesu moroi ba gotalua zimate, börö faduhu dödö niha wa teboka sambua hörö zingo na mörö ia, irege tobali famaedo Keriso ba lewatönia ba Keriso si tobali razo.
So göi gambara Mareko faoma zinali ba mbaginia ba ma zui oroma ia wangefa'ö ndra sawuyu (si no tobali niha Keriso) moroi khö niha Sarasene.
Galeri[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]
Gambara ndra saniaga sangosao'ö boto Santo Mareko ba Venesia, nifalului ndra biarawan Yunani, nifazökhi Tintoretto
Gambara Mareko samondrondrongo khö singo so'afi (bakha ba injil Lorsch)
Gambara Mareko Sanura Injil samaigi singo (a.t. döfi 823)
Gambara sangoroma'ö me tobali martir Santo Mareko (Musée Condé, Chantilly, a.t. döfi 1412 ba 1416)
Gambara Santo Mareko nifazökhi Andrea Mantegna, 1448
Gambara Mareko Sanura Injil faoma singo, 1524
Gambara Mareko ba injil Armenia moroi ba ndröfi 1609 si so ba Bodleian Library, Oxford, Inggris
Gambara Santo Mareko ba nahia zekola wanunö ba Gereja Santa Maria, Åhus, Swedia
Gambara Santo Mareko sanura injil Mareko moroi ba wanutunö Santo Fetero, nifazökhi Pasquale Ottino, ngaotu ndröfi si-17, Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux
Gambara Mareko Sanura Injil nifazökhi Il Pordenone (a.t. 1484 – 1539)
Gambara Mareko Sanura Injil si so ba mbawagöli Katedral Kazan, St. Petersburg, Rusia, 1804
Ikon Mareko Sanura Injil, 1657
Gereja Basilika Santo Mareko
Gambara Santo Mareko bakha ba zura Nuremberg Chronicle
Gambara Santo Mareko nifazökhi Donatello (1411–1413), Florence, Italia
Nahia tefolakhömi ia[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]
- Basilika Santo Mareko (Venesia, Italia)
- Katedral Santo Mareko Ortodoks Koptik (Aleksandria, Mesir)
- Gereja Santo Mareko (Belgrade, Serbia)
- Katedral Santo Mareko Ortodoks Koptik (Kairo, Mesir)
- Gereja Santo Mareko in-the-Bowery (New York City, Amerika Serikat)
Faigi göi[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]
- "St. Mark The Apostle, Evangelist". Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Mufaigi me November 21, 2012.
- Walsh, p. 21.
- Lewis, Agnes Smith (2008). Through Cyprus. University of Michigan Press. hlm. 65. ISBN 9780884022848.
St. Mark is the patron saint of the Copts.
- HalZin 12:1-17
- E. P. Sanders (30 November 1995). The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin Books Limited. hlm. 103. ISBN 978-0-14-192822-7.
We do not know who wrote the gospels. They presently have headings: ‘according to Matthew’, ‘according to Mark’, ‘according to Luke’ and ‘according to John’. The Matthew and John who are meant were two of the original disciples of Jesus. Mark was a follower of Paul, and possibly also of Peter; Luke was one of Paul's converts.5 These men – Matthew, Mark, Luke and John – really lived, but we do not know that they wrote gospels. Present evidence indicates that the gospels remained untitled until the second half of the second century.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. hlm. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1.
Why then do we call them Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John? Because sometime in the second century, when proto-orthodox Christians recognized the need for apostolic authorities, they attributed these books to apostles (Matthew and John) and close companions of apostles (Mark, the secretary of Peter; and Luke, the traveling companion of Paul). Most scholars today have abandoned these identifications,11 and recognize that the books were written by otherwise unknown but relatively well-educated Greek-speaking (and writing) Christians during the second half of the first century.
- Nickle, Keith Fullerton (January 1, 2001). The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. hlm. 43. ISBN 978-0-664-22349-6.
We must candidly acknowledge that all three of the Synoptic Gospels are anonymous documents. None of the three gains any importance by association with those traditional figures out of the life of the early church. Neither do they lose anything in importance by being recognized to be anonymous. Throughout this book the traditional names are used to refer to the authors of the first three Gospels, but we shall do so simply as a device of convenience.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (November 1, 2004). Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code : A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press, USA. hlm. 110-111. ISBN 978-0-19-534616-9.
We call these books, of course, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. And for centuries Christians have believed they were actually written by these people: two of the disciples of Jesus, Matthew the tax collector (see Matt. 9:9) and John, the “beloved disciple” (John 21:24), and two companions of the apostles, Mark, the secretary of Peter, and Luke, the traveling companion of Paul. These are, after all, the names found in the titles of these books. But what most people don’t realize is that these titles were added later, by second-century Christians, decades after the books themselves had been written, in order to be able to claim that they were apostolic in origin. Why would later Christians do this? Recall our earlier discussion of the formation of the New Testament canon: only those books that were apostolic could be included. What was one to do with Gospels that were widely read and accepted as authoritative but that in fact were written anonymously, as all four of the New Testament Gospels were? They had to be associated with apostles in order to be included in the canon, and so apostolic names were attached to them.
- Latötöi tradisi fefu ni'oroi'ö zatua föna, nitohu-tohugö wanutunö ba ni'o'ö-o'ö niha irugi iada'a. Moroi ba li Latin traditio, eluahania nifa'ema. Tradisi Gereja eluahania fefu goroisa nifa'ema i'otrarai ndra niha Keriso si föföna aefa götö Yesu, nitohugö wanutunö irugi ma'ökhö ba ni'o'ö ndra niha Keriso i'otarai me föna.
- So lima nifotöi patriarkat, ya'ia da'ö tuho nahia (li Indonesia pusat) ndra niha Keriso, ya'ia da'ö Roma, Antiokhia, Aleksandria, Konstantinopel ba furi hö Yerusalem
- Latötöi simbol gofu hadia ni'oguna'ö niha tobali tandra ba wangosalahini gofu hadia ia bö'ö. Duma-dumania na ta'ila dandra röfa ba no salahi wa'anihakeriso da'ö. Itaria la'oguna'ö niha gambara wofo beo ma zui mbua ndruria tobali simbol Danö Niha. Mandrera soyo afusi no tobali simbol negara Indonesia.
- Senior, Donald P. (1998), "Mark", bakha Ferguson, Everett, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity (edisi ke-2nd), New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., hlm. 720, ISBN 0-8153-3319-6
- Lane, William L. (1974). "The Author of the Gospel". The Gospel According to Mark. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. hlm. 21–3. ISBN 978-0-8028-2502-5.
- Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter, nga'örö 55 mbuku C. Clifton Black – 2001 –"... infrequent occurrence in the Septuagint (Num 36:11; Tob 7:2) to its presence in Josephus (JW 1.662; Ant 1.290, 15.250) and Philo (On the Embassy to Gaius 67), anepsios consistently carries the connotation of "cousin," though ..."
- Hippolytus. "The same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles". Ante-Nicene Fathers.
- Finegan, Jack (1998). Handbook of Biblical Chronology. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. hlm. 374. ISBN 978-1-56563-143-4.
- "Egypt". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Arsip moroi versi asli irugi December 20, 2011. Mufaigi me December 14, 2011. See drop-down essay on "Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire"
- "The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt". Encyclopedia Coptica. Arsip moroi versi asli irugi August 31, 2005. Mufaigi me 26 January 2018.
- Bunson, Matthew; Bunson, Margaret; Bunson, Stephen (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division. hlm. 401. ISBN 0-87973-588-0.
- "Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Mark". Mufaigi me March 1, 2013.
- "Acts 15:36–40". Bible Gateway.
- "2timothy 4:11 NASB – Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and – Bible Gateway". Bible Gateway.
- "Philemon 1:24". Bible Gateway.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2004). The New Testament. Oxford University Press, USA. hlm. 58–59. ISBN 0-19-515462-2.
Proto-orthodox Christians of the second century, some decades after most of the New Testament books had been written, claimed that their favorite Gospels had been penned by two of Jesus' disciples—Matthew, the tax collector, and John, the beloved disciple—and by two friends of the apostles—Mark, the secretary of Peter, and Luke, the travelling companion of Paul. Scholars today, however, find it difficult to accept this tradition for several reasons.
- Holman Reference Staff (2012). Holman Illustrated Bible Handbook. B&H Publishing Group. hlm. PT344. ISBN 978-1-4336-7833-2. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
Most critical scholars deny that Mark was the author or that he wrote on the basis of Peter's recollections
- Holman Illustrated Study Bible-HCSB. B&H Publishing Group. 2006. hlm. 1454. ISBN 978-1-58640-277-8. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
Most critical scholars deny that Mark was the author or that he wrote on the basis of Peter's recollections
- Easley, Kendell H. (2002). Holman Quicksource Guide to Understanding the Bible: A Book-By-Book Overview. Holman QuickSource. B&H Publishing Group. hlm. PT233. ISBN 978-1-4336-7134-0. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
Most critical scholars deny that Mark was the author or that he wrote on the basis of Peter's recollections
- Craig, William Lane; Lüdemann, Gerd; Copan, Paul; Tacelli, Ronald K. (2000). Jesus' Resurrection: Fact Or Figment?: A Debate Between William Lane Craig & Gerd Ludemann (ba li Belanda). InterVarsity Press. hlm. 43. ISBN 978-0-8308-1569-2. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
I wanted to use that quotation in order to show that the results of historical scholarship can be made known to the public—especially to believers—only with difficulty. Many Christians feel threatened if they hear that most of what was written in the Bible is (in historical terms) untrue and that none of the four New Testament Gospels was written by the author listed at the top of the text.
- Jeon, Jeong Koo; Baugh, Steve (2017). Biblical Theology: Covenants and the Kingdom of God in Redemptive History. Wipf & Stock. hlm. 181 fn. 10. ISBN 978-1-5326-0580-2. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
10. Just as historical critical scholars deny the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, so they also deny the authorship of the four Gospels by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. [...] But today, these persons are not thought to have been the actual authors.
- Bart D. Ehrman (2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2006). The Lost Gospel of Judas Iscariot: A New Look at Betrayer and Betrayed. Oxford University Press. hlm. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-971104-8. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
The Gospels of the New Testament are therefore our earliest accounts. These do not claim to be written by eyewitnesses to the life of Jesus, and historians have long recognized that they were produced by second- or third-generation Christians living in different countries than Jesus (and Judas) did, speaking a different language (Greek instead of Aramaic), experiencing different situations, and addressing different audiences.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2000). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. Oxford University Press. hlm. 55. ISBN 978-0-19-512639-6. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
We have already learned significant bits of information about these books. They were written thirty-five to sixty-five years after Jesus’ death by authors who did not know him, authors living in different countries who were writing at different times to different communities with different problems and concerns. The authors all wrote in Greek and they all used sources for the stories they narrate. Luke explicitly indicates that his sources were both written and oral. These sources appear to have recounted the words and deeds of Jesus that had been circulating among Christian congregations throughout the Mediterranean world. At a later stage we will consider the question of the historical reliability of these stories. Here we are interested in the Gospels as pieces of early Christian literature.
- Boring, M. Eugene (2012). An Introduction to the New Testament: History, Literature, Theology. Presbyterian Publishing Corporation. hlm. 522. ISBN 978-0-664-25592-3. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
Beginning with Papias in the second century, a tradition developed in various forms that attributed the authorship of the Gospel of Mark to this John Mark, who had been the companion of both Paul and Peter (Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 3.39.15). In all its variations, the ancient tradition makes clear that Mark's Gospel was accepted and valued in the church, not because of its historical accuracy, but because it represented Peter's apostolic authority. The Gospel of Mark itself makes no claim to have been written by an eyewitness and gives no evidence of such authorship. While most critical scholars consider the actual author's name to be unknown, the traditional view that Mark was written in Rome by a companion of Peter is still defended by some scholars who begin with the church tradition cited above and do not find convincing historical evidence to disprove it.6 For convenience, in this book we continue to refer to the Gospels by the names of their traditional authors.
- Ray, Ronald R. (2018). Systematics Critical and Constructive 1: Biblical-Interpretive-Theological-Interdisciplinary. Pickwick Publications. hlm. 123. ISBN 978-1-5326-0016-6. Mufaigi me 15 August 2023.
Authorship by an apostle was so unimportant to early recognition of a writing's authority that names of apostles (Matthew and John) or names of people thought to be associated with apostles (Mark and Luke respectively with Peter and Paul) were only attached to the four Gospels at the beginning of the second century, after those had gained recognition primarily because of churchly appreciation of their content. Having studied the content of John and Matthew, historical-critical scholarship massively doubts that the Hellenistic Fourth Gospel was authored by the apostle John, and widely doubts that the First Gospel was written by the apostle Matthew. That the author of Mark was Peter's associate also seems unlikely, since that Gospel is very Hellenistic and Peter—according to both Acts and Paul—was highly Jewish. Similarly, that the author of Luke was Paul's companion is most improbable, since Acts's accounts concerning Paul conflict much with what Paul's epistles report. Again, had any of the Gospels been written by apostles, why were their names attached so late?125 Nor would apostle associates have been apostles!
- Which is not a new claim, see Foster, Douglas A. (2012). The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. hlm. 176. ISBN 978-1-4674-2736-4. Mufaigi me 15 August 2023.
During this period Disciples scholars such as Willett began to study at interdenominational theological schools and secular universities, and for the first time the Stone-Campbell Movement engaged historical criticism as the primary perspective on biblical interpretation. While Campbell's "Seven Rules" had advocated a kind of historical criticism, traditional conclusions about authorship, date, and the nature of biblical documents had been assumed, so that no one in the first generation had supposed that the consistent application of Campbell's own principles would lead to results that challenged and overturned these conclusions. By the end of the nineteenth century, those who followed the critical method arrived at a new set of conclusions that made the Bible look entirely different. Among these new conclusions: the Pentateuch was not written by Moses but represented a long development within history, the prophets were not making long-range predictions about Jesus and the church, but spoke to the issues of their own time; the Gospels were not independent 'testimonies" that provided "evidence" for the historical facts about Jesus' life and teaching, but were interdependent (Matthew and Luke used Mark and "Q"); also, the Gospels were not written by apostles and contained several layers of reinterpreted traditions.
- Leach, Edmund (1990). "Fishing for men on the edge of the wilderness". Bakha Alter, Robert; Kermode, Frank. The Literary Guide to the Bible. Harvard University Press. hlm. 590. ISBN 978-0-674-26141-9.
5. The geography of Gospel Palestine, like the geography of Old Testament Palestine, is symbolic rather than actual. It is not clear whether any of the evangelists had ever been there.
- Wells, George Albert (2013). Cutting Jesus Down to Size: What Higher Criticism Has Achieved and Where It Leaves Christianity. Open Court. hlm. 25. ISBN 978-0-8126-9867-1. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
Mark's knowledge even of Palestine's geography is likewise defective. [...] Kümmel (1975, p. 97) writes of Mark's "numerous geographical errors"
- Hengel, Martin (2003). Between Jesus and Paul: Studies in the Earliest History of Christianity. Wipf and Stock Publishers. hlm. 98. ISBN 978-1-7252-0077-7. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
Furthermore, it is more than doubtful whether evangelists like Mark or Luke ever caught sight of a map of Palestine.
- Hatina, Thomas R. (2014). "Gospel of Mark". Bakha Evans, Craig A. The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus. Taylor & Francis. hlm. 252. ISBN 978-1-317-72224-3. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
Like the other synoptics, Mark's Gospel is anonymous. Whether it was originally so is, however, difficult to know. Nevertheless, we can be fairly certain that it was written by someone named Mark. [...] The difficulty is ascertaining the identity of Mark. Scholars debate [...] or another person simply named Mark who was not native to Palestine. Many scholars have opted for the latter option due to the Gospel's lack of understanding of Jewish laws (1:40-45; 2:23-28; 7:1-23), incorrect Palestinian geography (5:1-2, 12-13; 7:31), and concern for Gentiles (7:24-28:10) (e.g. Marcus 1999: 17-21).
- Reddish 2011, hlm. 36: "Evidence in the Gospel itself has led many readers of the Gospel to question the traditional view of authorship. The author of the Gospel does not seem to be too familiar with Palestinian geography. [...] Is it likely that a native of Palestine, as John Mark was, would have made such errors?" [...] Also, certain passages in the Gospel contain erroneous statements about Palestinian or Jewish practices."
- Watts Henderson, Suzanne (2018). "The Gospel according to Mark". Bakha Coogan, Michael; Brettler, Marc; Newsom, Carol; Perkins, Pheme. The New Oxford Annotated Bible: New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press. hlm. 1431. ISBN 978-0-19-027605-8. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
suggest that the evangelist was a Hellenized Jew who lived outside of Palestine.
- Tucker, J. Brian; Kuecker, Aaron (2020). T&T Clark Social Identity Commentary on the New Testament. Bloomsbury Publishing. hlm. 70. ISBN 978-0-567-66785-4. Mufaigi me 13 August 2023.
Francis Moloney suggests the author was someone named Mark, though maybe not any of the Marks mentioned in the New Testament (Moloney, 11-12).
- Millard, Alan (2006). "Authors, Books, and Readers in the Ancient World". Bakha Rogerson, J.W.; Lieu, Judith M. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford University Press. hlm. 558. ISBN 978-0199254255.
The historical narratives, the Gospels and Acts, are anonymous, the attributions to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John being first reported in the mid-second century by Irenaeus
- Reddish 2011, hlm. 13, 42.
- Cousland 2010, hlm. 1744.
- Cousland 2018, hlm. 1380.
- Latötöi konservatif niha sabölö aolo ba wombelegö hadia ni'oroi'ö moroi meföna/zatua föna. Si fa'ero eluaha khönia ya'ia progresif, eluahania abölö aolo ba wangalui hadia zindruhu iada'a ba latema hadia ia ni'oroi'ö me föna ha na sindruhu ia aefa lafatörö ia ba wamareso ilmiah.
- Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000, hlm. 41.
- http://oyc.yale.edu/sites/default/files/canon_0.pdf Archived 2016-07-05 at the Wayback Machine Templat:Bare URL PDF
- Papias (1885). "Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord". Ante-Nicene Christian Library, Volume I. Diterjemahkan oleh Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. T. & T. Clark in Edinburgh.
- Harrington, Daniel J. (1990), "The Gospel According to Mark", bakha Brown, Raymond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E., The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, hlm. 596, ISBN 0-13-614934-0
- D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament (Apollos, 1992), 93.
- Wansbrough, Henry (22 April 2010). Muddiman, John; Barton, John, ed. The Gospels. Oxford University Press. hlm. 243. ISBN 978-0-19-958025-5.
Finally it is important to realize that none of the four gospels originally included an attribution to an author. All were anonymous, and it is only from the fragmentary and enigmatic and—according to Eusebius, from whom we derive the quotation—unreliable evidence of Papias in 120/130 CE that we can begin to piece together any external evidence about the names of their authors and their compilers. This evidence is so difficult to interpret that most modern scholars form their opinions from the content of the gospels themselves, and only then appeal selectively to the external evidence for confirmation of their findings.
- Pope Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint and Martyr, Chapter One. Tasbeha.org
- "About the Diocese". Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States.
- "Saint Mark". Mufaigi me May 14, 2009.
- Paus Shenouda III, The Beholder of God Mark the Evangelist Saint and Martyr, Faza fitu. Tasbeha.org
- "The Calendar". The Church of England (ba li Inggris). Mufaigi me 2021-03-27.
- Didron, Adolphe Napoléon (February 20, 1886). Christian Iconography: The Trinity. Angels. Devils. Death. The soul. The Christian scheme. Appendices. G. Bell. hlm. 356 – via Internet Archive.
St. Mark iconography.
- "St. Mark in Art". www.christianiconography.info.
Basoŵa[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]
- Fant, Clyde E.; Reddish, Mitchell E. (2008). Lost Treasures of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802828811.
- Reddish, Mitchell (2011). An Introduction to The Gospels. Abingdon Press. ISBN 978-1426750083.
- Cousland, J.R.C. (2010). Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann; Perkins, Pheme, ed. The New Oxford Annotated Bible: New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press. hlm. 1744. ISBN 978-0-19-528955-8.
- Cousland, J.R.C. (1 March 2018). Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann; Perkins, Pheme, ed. The New Oxford Annotated Bible: New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press. hlm. 1380. ISBN 978-0-19-027605-8.
- Lindars, Barnabas; Edwards, Ruth; Court, John M. (2000). The Johannine Literature. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-84127-081-4.