Charles Darwin

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Charles Darwin no samösa zangila ba waö-waö danö awö waö-waö zaliŵa-liŵa ba gulidanö. Sinurania On the Origin of Species no tobali samokai lala wangera-ngera ba wamareso evolusi.

Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS
Töi sindruhu Charles Robert Darwin
Fa'atumbu 12 bawa si dua 1809[1]
Shropshire, Hagöri
Fa'amate 19 bawa si öfa 1882 (73 fakhe)[1]
Kent, Hagöri
Lewatö Westminster Abbey
Fo'omo Emma Wedgwood
Ono Dafulu
Almamater University of Edinburgh Medical School[2]
Christ's College, Cambridge[3]
Orahua Geological Society of London
La'ila ia sato börö: Fanurania sanandrösa ba evolusi faoma geologi:
  • The Voyage of the Beagle
  • On the Origin of Species
  • The Descent of Man
Tando tanga
Darwinsig.svg
Lala halöwö
Halöwö Ere waö-waö danö awö zaliŵa-liŵa ba danö
Sinura The Voyage of the Beagle
On the Origin of Species
The Descent of Man
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
The Power of Movement in Plants
The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms

Fa'auri[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Me ide-ide irugi zikola[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Charles Darwin me döfi 1816 (fitu fakhe); igogohe sinanö ba dangania

Tumbu Charles moroi ba gotalua zatua sangila. Amania doto ba ninania nono samösa sokhö usaha. Tuania Robert Darwin göi no samösa sangila biologi samaduhu'ö fangera-ngera evolusi ma proto-evolusi ba ginötönia, oroma moroi ba fanurania Zoonomia (1794)[4] so'ösi fa'omasinia ba wangera-ngera evolusi si lö nasa nifareso ba ginötö da'ö.[1] Me walu fakhe Charles, möi ia ba zikola nifamaha fandritara me döfi 1817. Fatua da'ö sa no ibörögö fa'omasinia ba waöwaö danö ba i'owulo-wuloi danömö somasi ia. Ba mbawa si fitu döfi da'ö, iröi gulidanö ninania. I'otarai bawa si walu 1818, fao ia khö ga'ania iramatua ba Zikola Anglikan Shrewsbury sahatö ba nomonia, toröi ia ba asrama.[5]

Ba mbawa si fulu 1825, ifasao namania ya'ia faoma ga'ania ba Edinburgh University ena'ö tola tobali doto ira. Ba zi döfi awai zikola ga'a nia, lö simanö Charles. Imane membosankan famahaö ndra gurunia ba talafo abua wolau operasi ba niha. Fakhamö ifaigi dombua operasi si lö sökhi folau, ba iröi fatua lö awai nasa. Börö fa lö omasinia, lö irai fao ia ba wamaigi famahaö operasi sa'ae. Me hatö ya'ia ba zikola, fariawö ia khö ndra sangila waöwaö danö. Samuza inötö fahuhuo ia khö nawönia, latutunö fangera-ngera evolusi nifa'ema Lamarck. Awena ibörögö möi ba dödönia sinura duania Zoonomia si no irai ibaso. Me ifuli ibaso i, lö fatema khönia wa'oya nösi si lö tebai lafaduhu'ö (spekulasi).[6]

Börö me dua fakhenia ba Edinburg lö sindruhu-ndruhu ifamaha ia ba zikola doto Edinburh, ifaso namania ia möi ba Christ's College, Cambridge. Ba da'ö ihalö gelar Bachelor of Arts, sambua lala nitörö ena'ö tobali fandrita Anglikan. Ba da'ö falukha ia khö gurunia fandrita sangila waöwaö saliwa-liwa ba danö, John Steven Henslow. Ifosumange si'ai Charles gurunia da'a börö me lö fatema khö gurunia fombali'ö sawuyu niha. Tobali nawönia Henslow, asese ibe'e fetua khö Charles ba zikolania.[7][8]

Ba ujian safuriatania bawa si sara Januari 1831, isöndra nilai si baga börö me ibe'e dödönia ba wamahaö studi klasik, matematika faoma fisika. Numero 10 ia moroi 178 fefu nifahaö si tama zikola.[9]

Toröi Darwin ba Cambridge irege bawa si önö 1831 börö me no latatugö khöra nifahaö simanö. Teboka hörönia wombaso sinura Alexander von Humboldt, Personal Narrative, ba tumbu ba dödönia fe'amöi ba Hulo Tenerife ba wamareso waöwaö danö ba mbanua tropis. Ifa'anö ia Charles faoma ndra aönia fe'amöi ba da'ö awai tama ira. Si tobali wama'anönia, fao ia ba kalasi geologi nifamaha Fandrita Adam Sedgwick. Ba ginötö aukhu mbanua, fao ia khö gurunia ba wanura wamareso khoikhoi niha mbanua (strata) ba Wales. Me no aefa da'ö, omasi ifalua famaresonia samösa ba danö bö'ö, danö Madeira. Lö möi mofanö ia i, börö me iröi gulidanö nawönia sedöna fao khönia ba Madeira mena. Me mangawuli ia ba nomo, itema sambua sura moroi khö gurunia Henslow. No ifatunö Henslow wa'omasinia ena'ö fao Charles tobali awö Robert FitzRoy, kafalo göfa HMS Beagle, möi moloyo siraya ba mbanua Amerika Siraya dua fakhe wa'ara. Börö me i'ila namania wa tobali lala khö Charles da'a ba wangehao fangilania ba waöwaö danö, itegu Charles. Imane wa ha fangohori ginötö manö nilaunia dania ba woloyo misa ba danö. Hiza i, i'andrö matuania Josiah Wedgwood II fa itehe wofanö nononia. Andrö tobali itehe namania wofanö Darwin. Foloyo si fao Darwin wa'arania dania tenga ha dua fake i, lima fakhe wa'ara.[10]

Fao ba woloyo HMS Beagle[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Foloyo kafa HMS Beagle ba zi sagörö gulidanö

Ba döfi 1831, me awena töra dua wulu fakhe Charles, tobali naturalis ia si fao awö kafalo göfa Fitzroy ba woloyo kafa HMS Beagle wofasui zi sagörö gulidanö ba ginötö lima fakhe wa'ara. I'oguna'ö ginötönia Charles ba Hulo Galapagos, Amerika Siraya, awö mbanua bö'ö wamareso khala-khala danö. Andrö tola tobali isura ngawalö ia sifakhai ba geologi ba ibörögö i'angeraigö hana wa tola fabö'ö-bö'ö naha wa'auri zi sambua urifö ma danömö moroi khö nawönia.

Bakha ba mbuku nia imane wanguma'ö,[1]

"When on board H.M.S. 'Beagle,' as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the inhabitants of South America, and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent. These facts seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species—that mystery of mysteries, as it has been called by one of our greatest philosophers."

Famareso teori evolusi[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Me mangawuli Charles ba Hagöri, no la'ila ia ndra sangila börö wanurania ba waö-waö danö. Me ba göfa so ia nasa ba mbawa si felendrua 1835, no ifa'ema sinurania gurunia Henslow khö mato hauga naturalis.[11] ....

Fongambatö[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Ihalö gasiwania Emma Wedgwoodon tobali fo'omonia, mangowalu ira 29 bawa si fitu 1839. So khöra fulu iraono.[12]

Iraono[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Töi Tumbu Moröi gulidanö
William Erasmus 27 bawa si fele ndrua 1839 8 bawa si siwa 1914
Anne Elizabeth 2 bawa si tölu 1841 23 bawa si öfa 1851
Mary Eleanor 23 bawa si siwa 1842 16 bawa si fulu 1842
Henrietta Emma 25 bawa si siwa 1843 17 bawa si fele ndrua 1927
George Howard 9 bawa si fitu 1845 7 bawa si fele ndrua 1912
Elizabeth 8 bawa si fitu 1847 8 bawa si önö 1926
Francis 16 bawa si walu 1848 19 bawa si siwa 1925
Leonard 15 bawa si sara 1850 26 bawa si tölu 1943
Horace 13 bawa si lima 1851 29 bawa si siwa 1928
Charles 6 bawa si fele ndrua 1856 28 bawa si önö 1858

Dafulu nono Charles: darua simate awuyu-wuyu, ba afökhö sibai khöra me mate Annie me fulu fakhe ia. No samösa nama samaeri sororogö Charles. No ilau wamareso lua-lua famakhai (perkawinan) danömö sahatö oroita zatua. Andrö, ero-ero mofökhö iraononia ata'u ia na fökhö moroi ba wa'atumbu börö me ahatö ndronia khö wo'omonia Emma Wedgwood, sambua tua ira.[13]

He simanö wa'ata'unia, oya nononia sanöndra halöwö si sökhi, simanö göi ma'uwu-mauwunia mitou. Ononia George ere waö-waö ndröfi, Francis ere danömö, ba Horace ere teknik sipil fao ba gorahua Fellows of the Royal Society; datölu ira la'amualagö khöra lakhömi fa'abalugu.[14] Ononia bö'ö, Leonard tobali zaradadu, niha foliti, ere ekonomi, ere eugenika ba göi guru ia khö Ronald Fisher si tobali ere statistik faoma biologi evolusioner.[15]

Fa'amate[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Tandra lewatö Charles Darwin ba zinga John Herschel ba Westminster Abbey, London

Iröi gulidanö Charles Darwin 19 bawa si öfa 1882. Imane doto ba ginötö da'ö wa fökhö Charles motöi "angina pectoris", fökhö ba dötöa.[16] Hiza i, manguma'ö niha wa da'ö si göna Charles sindruhunia fökhö chagas moroi ba serangga. Da'ö gohe-gohera sinura Charles samatunö wa no i'usu ia "Kissing Bug" ba danö Mendoza, Argentina me 1835. Mofökhö ia göi fagölö ba dandra-tandra niha si göna fökhö chagas andrö.[17] Omasi ia lako'o ba lewatö St Mary ba mbanua Downe, hiza i la'andrö nawö-nawönia faoma niha sato ena'ö lako'o ia ba Westminster Abbey, ba zinga John Herschel faoma Isaac Newton. Latema ba parlemen fangandrö da'a. Foko'o tefalua ba luo Rabu 26 bawa si öfa, ribu niha si möi ba danö.[18]

Oröita[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Ba ginötö wa'amatenia, no ato ira sangila samaduhu'ö wa sindruhu alua evolusi ba wamawe'e nilau Darwin faoma ndra awönia ba halöwö. Me bawa si önö 1909, lafosumange ia töra 400 sohalöwö ba wamareta awö ndra sangila moroi ba zi sagörö gulidanö ba wanörö tödö otu fakhe fa'atumbunia faoma lima wulu fakhe foraka mbuku On the Origin of Species.[19]

Gohe-gohe[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. (2006). On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or, The preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486450063. OCLC 62857845. nga'örö ix.
  2. Notable alumni > Charles Darwin. The University of Edinburgh.
  3. "Charles Darwin's personal finances revealed in new find". 22 bawa si tölu 2009. The Telegraph.
  4. Smith, Homer William (1952). Man and his gods. Boston: Little, Brown. nga'örö 339.
  5. Darwin, Charles (1958). Barlow, Nora (ed.). The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882. With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his granddaughter Nora Barlow. London: Collins. nga'örö 21-25.
  6. Darwin, Charles (1958). nga'örö 46-49.
  7. Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (2009). Darwin's sacred cause : race, slavery and the quest for human origins. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-84614-035-8. nga'örö 48, 50-51.
  8. Darwin, Charles (1958). nga'örö 64-66.
  9. Browne, E. Janet (1995). Charles Darwin: vol. 1 Voyaging. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 1-84413-314-1. nga'örö 97.
  10. Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1991). Darwin. London: Michael Joseph, Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-7181-3430-3. n. 94–97.
  11. Letters on Geology. Darwin Online.
  12. Desmond & Moore (1991).
  13. Darwin A Case Study In His Own Theory: Inbreeding. npr.
  14. Berra, Tim M. (2013). Darwin and His Children: His Other Legacy. Oxford University Press. nga'örö 101, 129, 168.
  15. Edwards, A. W. F. (2004). Darwin, Leonard (1850–1943). Bakha ba: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press.
  16. Colp, Ralph. (2008). "The Final Illnes". Darwin's Illness. nga'örö. 116–120. doi:10.5744/florida/9780813032313.003.0014. ISBN 978-0-8130-3231-3.
  17. Chagas disease 101 | Nature, "Charles Darwin wrote in his journal The Voyage of the Beagle about having been bitten by the Triatoma kissing bug when visiting Chile in 1835, and subsequently suffering poor health, including vomiting, gut pain, headaches and depression, for the rest of his life. The presence of gastric symptoms and his ultimate demise from cardiac problems have led some scholars to propose that Darwin was suffering from Chagas disease, although certain other factors suggest otherwise — including the fact that the parasite is not transmitted directly in the bite of the insect. The many other explanations put forward include stress, allergies and lactose intolerance — an inability to digest milk and dairy products, made worse by Darwin's love of cream. The truth might be unattainable without exhuming Darwin's body from Westminster Abbey in London, United Kingdom, to look for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA."
  18. Charles Darwin.Westminster Abbey.
  19. Wyhe, John van. Charles Darwin: gentleman naturalist. Darwin Online.