Fökhö Gulo (Diabetes Mellitus)

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Hadia nifotöi wökhö gulo?[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Fӧkhӧ Gulo (FG) ya'ia da'ӧ sambua fӧkhӧ metabolik bӧrӧ me'so masaala ba wame'e baero isuli (insulin), halӧwӧ isuli ma bӧrӧ zidombua da'e.[1] Fӧkhӧ da'e tobali fӧkhӧ ni'hӧrӧgӧ ba zi sagӧrӧ ulidanӧ ba fa'aluania alio sibai.[2]Angorudua Ndra Sohalӧwӧ ba Kesehatan ba Zisagӧrӧ ulidanӧ (WHO), la erai ba zi sagӧrӧ ulidanӧ so 422 juta niha ndrӧfi (usia) 18 fakhe töra, gӧna fӧkhӧ gulo ba ndrӧfi 2014.[3] Da'e i'duhugӧ gӧi data moroi ba Federasi Wӧkhӧ Gulo Sagӧrӧ Ulidanӧ ba Amerika / International Diabetes Federation (IDF) la mane tesӧndra 382 juta niha (175 juta lӧ oroma ba wamareso) zigӧna fӧkhӧ gulo ba zisagӧrӧ ulidanӧ ba ndrӧfi 2013, moroi ba gangaruhuta da'e la kirakӧ tedou tobali 592 juta niha ba ndrӧfi 2035.[4] Fӧkhӧ da'e abӧlӧ tedou ia ba soi si'kamba, bӧrӧ me alio tedou nono mbanua'nia, fa'atua (penuaan), lӧ baga gӧ, fa'esolo (obesitas), ba tanӧ'bӧ'ӧ'nia.[5]

Indonesia sambua soi si kamba ba zisagӧrӧ ulidanӧ. Ono mbanua Indonesia ba zi'dua wulu a'lima wakhe mifӧna, itugu tedou ya'ia da'ӧ moroi ba zi 238,5 juta ba ndrӧfi 2010 tobali 305,6 juta ba ndrӧfi 2035.[6] Data moroi ba Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) lamane fӧkhӧ gulo ba Indonesia molo'ӧ wawancara tedou moroi ba zi 1,1 fӧrӧse (ndrӧfi 2007) tobali 2,1 fӧrӧse ba ndrӧfi 2013. Aefa da'ӧ, molo'ӧ wa'alua wӧkhӧ da'e (epidemiologi) la'kirakӧ wa ba ndrӧfi 2030, fa'oya wӧkhӧ gulo andre tola irugi 21,3 juta niha ba Indonesia.[7] Angarahuta wӧkhӧ da'e tola manӧ alua na'lӧ te'angelama'si i'otarai ia'da'a, zilӧ'ӧ-lӧ'ӧ'nia mozago gulo ndro.

Fombagi wökhö gulo[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Fombagi wӧkhӧ gulo molo'ӧ mbӧrӧ (etiologi) ma hadia ia zi tobali bӧrӧnia. American Diabetes Association (ADA) la mane sasesenia fӧkhӧ gulo tebagi dua ya'ia da'ӧ fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1 ba fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2.[2] Dombua tipe wӧkhӧ gulo da'e tesura ia molo'ӧ numero ba Arab tenga numero ba Romawi, bӧrӧ numero II romawi asese elungu niha wamaigi ba lawalinga numero 11 (felezara).[8] Tou da'e wangombakha sadogo-dogo wӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1 ba tipe 2.

Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1 alua bӧrӧ wӧkhӧ autoimun, sel beta si so ba galakhaӧ (pankreas) afufu ba niha sombuyu (rentan) si'otarai ba dalu (nga'ӧtӧ) ba tebai mamazӧkhi isuli.[1] ADA lamane fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1 sasesenia musӧndra ba ndraono ba iraono sibohou ebua, furihӧ lafotӧi ia fӧkhӧ gulo juvenile. Fӧkhӧ gulo da'e ha alua ia 5% ba niha sigӧna wӧkhӧ gulo, tandrania fa'afufu sel beta ba galakhaӧ. Da'e bӧrӧ angorudua wӧkhӧ nga'ӧtӧ (genetik), fatahana mboto (imunologi), ba tola manӧ bӧrӧ likunga (simane, tungö'ite [virus]) ba bӧrӧ tanӧ'bӧ'ӧ sitola fakhai ba wa'afufu sel beta ba galakhaӧ. Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1 tola alua ia ba zi 25-50% ba zifaero sifagӧlӧ (kembar identik), 6% ba zi fa'talifusӧ, ba 5% mi'tou ba nga'ӧtӧ.[9] Tandra wӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1 da'e ya'ia da'ӧ asese kiӧ (poliuria), owӧkhi dӧdӧ sabӧlӧ-bӧlӧ (polidipsia), asese olofo (polifagia), ba fa'alӧ wa'abua silӧ taraso.[10]

Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2 ya'ia da'ӧ masaala ba mboto bӧrӧ me alӧ wa'abӧlӧ sel ba wanema isuli nifotӧi resistensi isuli.[1] Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2 andre tesӧndra 90% irugi 95% ba gangarahuta zatua si'no gӧna fӧkhӧ gulo da'e.[11] Awena te'ila wӧkhӧ da'e na no aefa ndrӧfi si 40 fakhe ba sasesenia ba zatua, sesolo (obesitas), ba etnik awӧ ras si no mutandrai.[9] Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2 alua bӧrӧ nga'ӧtӧ ba bӧrӧ likunga gӧi. Nga'ӧtӧ fakhai ia ba wame'e baero isuli ba retensi isuli, ba bӧrӧ likunga fakhai ia ba wa'esolo, tӧra manga, ambӧ fa olaraga, siteresi, awӧ wa'atua.[12]

Ato niha si'gӧna fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2 andre lӧ te'ila ma lӧ murasoi dandrania. Bahiza, so dandra si'te'ila bӧro wӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2 ya'ia da'ӧ:[13]

  1. Tandra sasese murasoi ba si no ara simane, asese kiӧ, owӧkhi dӧdӧ sabӧlӧ-bӧlӧ, oya manga, ba alӧ wa'abua.
  2. Alӧ mangi'ila.
  3. Omboyu ndroto-ndroto tanӧ tou (i'otarai lӧwi-lӧwi irugi zuru gahe).
  4. Ifeksi zungӧ, simane balanitis ba nonomatua.

Fökhö tanö'bö'ö salua börö wökhö gulo[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Fa'alawa gulo ba ndro (Hiperglikemia) sarara tola tekiko ngawalӧ ndroto-ndroto siofӧnania saraf ba uo. Masaala samakiko fa'auri niha sigӧna fӧkhӧ gulo si lӧ muzago ya'ia da'ӧ fa'alawa gulo ba ndro sifao ketoasidosis.[14] Fӧkhӧ tanӧ'bӧ'ӧ salua bӧrӧ wӧkhӧ gulo ya'ia da'ӧ:[4]

  1. Alio gӧna fӧkhӧ dӧdӧ ba fӧkhӧ fa'ombuyu (stroke)
  2. Fa'atekiko saraf ba gahe irege alua zokho gahe (ulkus kaki), mӧi zungӧ (infeksi), irege tola la taba gahe.
  3. Au'a bӧrӧ tekiko nuo si'ide-ide ba hӧrӧ.
  4. Bӧrӧ wӧkhӧ mbua.
  5. Fa'amate ba zigӧna wӧkhӧ gulo dua kali (lipat) moroi ba zilӧ gӧna fӧkhӧ da'e.
  6. Masaala halӧwӧ zatua (disfungsi seksual)

Famareso wökhö gulo (diagnostic test)[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Famareso wӧkhӧ da'e ya'ia da'ӧ la tesi ba laboratorium lalania la su'a  wa'alawa gulo ndro. [15] Fotesi gulo ndro da'e ya'ia da'ӧ:[16]

Gulo dro fuasӧ/Fasting Plasma Glucose Level (FPG)[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

ADA imane gulo ndro fuasӧ si normal ya'ia da'ӧ ambӧ moroi ba zi 100 mg/dl. Niha tola la'diagnosa mo fӧkhӧ gulo na gulo ndro fuasӧnia 126 mg/dl ma tӧra, nihalӧ si'lӧ'ӧ-lӧ'ӧ'nia 8 (walu) ja fuasӧ. Na gulo ndro fuasӧ ba zi 100-125 mg/dl, eluahania niha da'e tegadu gulo ndro fuasӧnia ma tefotӧi ia ba li bӧ'ӧ Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) ba tola gӧna fӧkhӧ gulo (pradiabetes).

Famareso gulo ndro si'lӧ tatu ginӧtӧ/Random Plasma Glucose (RPG)[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Gulo ndro sifaruka tefotӧi ia gulo ndro gofu hawa'ara manӧ wamareso. Famareso gulo da'e lӧ'moguna wama'anӧ ma inӧtӧ wemanga. Fӧkhӧ gulo na RPG 200 mg/dl ma tӧra sifao dandra wӧkhӧ gulo.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Famareso gulo ndro aefa manga zami-ami ma tefotӧi ia ba li bӧ'ӧ Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Moguna ba wamaduhu'ӧ diagnosis wӧkhӧ gulo ba niha sokhӧ gulo ndro si normal ofeta alawa ma ha ma'ifu tedou. OGTT da'e manu'a gulo ndro ba ginӧtӧ aefa wamazu idanӧ si so gulo. Fӧkhӧ gulo na fa'alawa ndro ba zi 200 mg/dl ma tӧra na aefa 2 (dua) ja, na gulo ndro ba zi 140-199 mg/dl aefa 2 (dua) ja, la diagnosa ia IFG faoma pradiabetes.

Glycohemoglobin  Test[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Glycohemoglobin la tӧtӧi ia gӧi glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ma hemoglobin A1C. HbA1c te'oguna'ӧ ia tobali dane-dane awӧ ba wamaigi fa'atedou kontrol wӧkhӧ gulo. Su'a-su'a si normal HbA1c ya'ia da'ӧ 4% ofeta 6%, te'tӧtӧi fӧkhӧ gulo na HbA1c ba zi 6,5% ma tӧra, ba na HbA1c ba gotalua zi 6% ofeta 6,5% tola tobali diabetes (pradiabetes).

Hadia nifalua na tohare wökhö da'e?[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Nifalua ba wӧkhӧ gulo tipe 1 ya'ia da'ӧ:[10]

  1. Muzago (Kontrol) gulo
  2. Muzago gulo samӧsa.
  3. Dalu-dalu isuli.
  4. Diet ba mohalӧwӧ ma fa olaraga.

Fӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

Nifalua ba wӧkhӧ gulo tipe 2 ya'ia da'ӧ:[13]

  1. Mangalӧsi wa'aoha (risiko) gӧna wӧkhӧ nuo si'ide-ide he bahӧrӧ ba he ba mbua, lalania mu'zago gulo ndro ba fa'alawa ndro.
  2. Mangalӧsi wa'aoha gӧna wӧkhӧ nua sebua si so ba nuo dӧdӧ (koroner), nuo ba guto (serebrovaskuler), ba nuo ba mboto tanӧ'bӧ'ӧ (perifer).
  3. Mangalӧsi wa'aoha metabolisme ba neurologi, lalania kontrol gulo ba ndro.

Gohe-gohe[bulö'ö | bulö’ö kode]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Ignatavicius, D. D., Workman, M. L., & Winkelman, C. (2016). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Patient-Centered Collaborative Care (8th Ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Lewis, S. L., Dirksen, S. R., Heitkemper, M. M.,  & Bucher, L. (2014). Medical-Surgical: Assessment and management of clinical problems. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier/Mosby.
  3. World Health Organization. (2016). Global Report on Diabetes. Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua 2021, moroi ba apps.who.int.
  4. 4,0 4,1 Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2014). Infodatin: Situasi dan Analisis Diabetes. Jakarta: Penerbit. Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua 2021, moroi ba depkes.go.id.
  5. World Health Organization. (2016). Diabetes Mellitus. Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua, moroi ba who.int.
  6. Badan Pusat Statistik. (2013). Proyeksi Penduduk Indonesia: Indonesia Population Projection. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik. Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua, Moroi ba bappenas.go.id.
  7. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2009). Tahun 2030 Prevalensi Diabetes Melitus Di Indonesia Mencapai 21,3 Juta Orang. Muhalö me Sara baŵa si fulu 2016, moroi ba depkes.go.id.
  8. American Diabetes Association. (2003). Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus: Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Other Categories of Glucose Regulation. Diabetes Care, 26(Suppl. 1), S5-S20.
  9. 9,0 9,1 Black, J. M., & Hawks, J. H. (2014). Keperawatan Medikal Bedah: Manajemen Klinis untuk Hasil yang Diharapkan (8th edisi). Singapore: Elsevier
  10. 10,0 10,1 Khardori, R. (2016). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Practice Essentials. Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua 2021, moroi ba emedicine.medscape.com.
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua, moroi ba cdc.gov.
  12. Kaku, K. (2010). Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Treatment Policy. Japan Medical Association, 53(1), 41-46. Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua, moroi ba med.or.jp.
  13. 13,0 13,1 Khardori, R. (2016). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Practice Essentials. Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua, moroi ba emedicine.medscape.com.
  14. Khan, A. N., Macdonald, S., Turnbull, I., & Chandramohan, M. (2015). Imaging in Neuropathic Arthropathy (Charcot Joint). Muhalö me 19 Baŵa si dua, moroi ba emedicine.medscape.com.
  15. Hannon, R. A., Pooler, C., & Porth, C. M. (2010). Porth Pathophysiology: Consepts of Altered Health States (1st Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  16. Williams, L. S., & Hopper, P. D. (2015). Understanding Medical Surgical Nursing (5th Ed.). Philadelphia: F.A Davis Company.